African Violet

 

 

Kembali ke Direktori Tumbuhan 

Oleh / By:  Noraida Arifin


Nama Tempatan:African Violet
Nama Saintifik:Saintpaulia ionantha
Nama Lain:African-violet, saintpaulia, african violet
Famili:Gesneriaceae
Lokasi Gambar:Tumbuhan hiasan di pejabat
Asal:Tanzania

KETERANGAN:

Saintpaulia atau lebih dikenali dengan nama african violet merupakan genus tumbuhan yang terdiri daripada 20 spesies tumbuhan dalam keluarga Gesneriaceae. Ia merupakan antara tumbuhan berbunga yang dijadikan hiasan di dalam rumah kerana kemampuannya untuk hidup dan menghasilkan bunga dengan pendedahan kepada cahaya yang tidak banyak. Ia berasal dari Tanzania dan bahagian selatan kenya di Amerika tropika. Ia paling banyak terdapat di pergunungan Nguru di Tanzania. Ia dinamakan african violet kerana bunganya yang menyerupai bunga violet.

Nama saintifiknya mengambil sempena nama Baron Walter Von Saint Pail Illaire yang merupakan pegawai daerah Tanganyika (tanzania) . Ia boleh tumbuh sehingga tingginya 6 hingga 15 cm dan lebar kawasan daunnya ialah 6-30 cm. Daunnya berbentuk bulat dan bujur. Permukaannya daunnya dilitupi oleh bulu-bulu halus. Bunganya berdiameter antara 2. 3 cm dengan lima kelopak yang kelihatan seperti baldu. Bunganya berada dalam gugusan yang selalunya terdiri daripada 3 hingga 10 tangkai bunga. Bunganya pelbagai warna. Spesis asal ( saintpaulia Ionantha) mempunyai warna ungu, violet, ungu muda dan putih. Sekarang terdapat pelbagai spesies kacukan yang mempunyai bunga seperti merah bercampur putih, kuning dan beberapa warna lagi yang menarik.

Antara spesies african violet yang ditanam sebagai tanaman hiasan.
Saintpaulia brevipilosa
Saintpaulia confusa
Saintpaulia difficilis
Saintpaulia diplotricha
Saintpaulia goetzeana
Saintpaulia grandifolia
Saintpaulia grotei
Saintpaulia inconspicua
Saintpaulia intermedia
Saintpaulia ionantha
Saintpaulia magungensis
Saintpaulia nitida
Saintpaulia orbicularis
Saintpaulia pendula
Saintpaulia pusilla
Saintpaulia rupicola
Saintpaulia shumensis
Saintpaulia teitensis
Saintpaulia tongwensis
Saintpaulia velutina

Pembiakan african violet ialah dengan menggunakan daunnya. Tangkai daun yang ditanam dalam tanah akan menghasilkan anak baru setelah lebih kurang 3 minggu. Penjagaannya mudah, ia memerlukan air yang mencukupi. Baja diberikan 2 kali sebulan untuk menjamin pertumbuhan bunganya yang optimun. Ia sesuai ditanam di dalam rumah atau pejabat.

Gambar menunjukkan saintpaulia Ionantha yang di tanam di pejabat saya. Ia berasal dari sehelai daun yang diberikan oleh seorang teman 6 tahun lalu. Semenjak itu saya telah memberikan daunnya untuk dibiakkan kepada berpuluh-puluh orang teman lagi.

 

KEGUNAAN:

Tumbuhan hiasan yang menarik untuk pejabat dan rumah

 


Common Name:African Violet
Scientific Name:Saintpaulia ionantha
Other Name:African-violet, saintpaulia, african violet
Family:Gesneriaceae
Location:Tumbuhan hiasan di pejabat
Origin:Tanzania


DESCRIPTION:

Saintpaulia, or with its more commonly known name, the African Violet, is a plant genus consisted from the many 20 species of the Gesneriaceae family . It is one of the flowering plants usually used as house decor due to its ability to survive and bloom flowers even with a small exposure of light. Originated from Tanzania and the South side of Kenya in Tropical America, the African Violets are mostly found by the Nguru mountains in Tanzania. Because of the flower’s similarity to that of a violet, the name African Violet was given.

The plant’s scientific name (Saintpaulia Ionantha) was taken based on a state officer of Tanganyika (Tanzania) named Baron Walter Von Saint Paul-Illaire. The plant can grow up 6-15 cm in height and the leaves are able to spread from 6-30 cm in width. The leaves are shaped round and oval while its surface is covered with fine hairs. With five petals that resembles velvet, the flowers are usually between 2-3 cm in diameter and blooms in clusters that consists from 3-10 stalks of flower. The shades of color the flowers come with varies. The original species (Saintpaulia ionantha) produces flowers in purple, violet, light purple and white. Within the past years there have been a significant increase of hybrid breeds that produces a number of interesting colors such as red mixed with white, yellow and others.
Some of the species of African Violet that are suitable to planted as ornamental plants:
Saintpaulia brevipilosa
Saintpaulia confusa
Saintpaulia difficilis
Saintpaulia diplotricha
Saintpaulia goetzeana
Saintpaulia grandifolia
Saintpaulia grotei
Saintpaulia inconspicua
Saintpaulia intermedia
Saintpaulia ionantha
Saintpaulia magungensis
Saintpaulia nitida
Saintpaulia orbicularis
Saintpaulia pendula
Saintpaulia pusilla
Saintpaulia rupicola
Saintpaulia shumensis
Saintpaulia teitensis
Saintpaulia tongwensis
Saintpaulia velutina

The method of reproduction that African Violets use is the vegetative reproduction method (using its leaves). The leaf stalk that is planted in soil will produce a new plant within a period of roughly 3 weeks. Taking care of it is rather easy, as long as it receives enough water. Fertilization should be given two times a month to ensure optimum growth. African Violets are suitable as décor in houses and offices.

The picture shows a Saintpaulia Ionantha that was planted in my office. It came from a single leaf that was given to me by a friend 6 years ago. Ever since then, I have given its leaves to be reproduced to dozens of my other friends.

 

USAGE:

An attractive choice of ornamental plant for office or house decor.

 


RUJUKAN / REFERENCES:

 

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